[646] - Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination of sediments with low clay content: Near Surface

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Cassiani, G., Kemna, A., Villa, A., Zimmermann, E., 2009. Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination of sediments with low clay content: Near Surface. Near Surface Geophysics, 7, 547 - 562. DOI: 10.3997/1873-0604.2009028.
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Title(s):Main Title: Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination of sediments with low clay content: Near Surface
Description(s):Abstract: The identification of organic pollutants in the soil and the subsurface is a goal of primary importance in the management of contaminated sites. However, only a few non-invasive techniques can be useful towards this goal. One such technique is spectral induced polarization. In this study, we investigate the spectral induced polarization effect of changing fluid saturation in a well-characterized porous medium, analysing the difference between air and hydrocarbons, at different degrees of water saturation. The experiments were conducted on fine eolic sand samples coming from an experimental site near Turin, Italy. Octanol and benzene were used as non-aqueous phase liquids. Samples were initially saturated with water having controlled electrical conductivity and subsequently de-saturated stepwise with injec­tion of air at known pressure. The eolic sand samples were then re-saturated with the same water con­taminated with hydrocarbons and then a non-aqueous phase liquid phase (either octanol or benzene) was injected in volumetric steps, in order to compare the effects of air and non-aqueous phase liquid invasion. At each saturation step, spectral induced polarization measurements were conducted in the 0.01 Hz to 1 kHz range using the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. The measurement setup guaranteed a 1 mrad phase precision for the entire frequency measure­ment range. Measurements were conducted under temperature controlled conditions at 20 (±0.5)° C. All spectral induced polarization curves show a peak in the range 0.01–1 Hz that changes in intensity and frequency with varying saturation and a high-frequency phase shift increase dominated by capaci­tive coupling effects of the measuring system. A multiple Cole-Cole model was fitted to the data. The effects of de-saturation on the low-frequency Cole-Cole parameters are that a) resistivity increases with decreasing water saturation but increases less with non-aqueous phase liquid than with the same volume of air; b) chargeability increases with decreasing water saturation but in presence of non-aqueous phase liquids its value is sometimes lower, sometimes higher and sometimes similar to the one observed in presence of air; c) the time constant τ increases with decreasing water saturation and is consistently larger with non-aqueous phase liquid than with air. These differences between air and non-aqueous phase liquid injection can be explained in terms of differences in non-aqueous phase distribution within the porous medium, as observed by X-ray micro-CT: while air is homogeneously distributed, non-aqueous phase liquids segregate under density effects. In summary, all spectral induced polariza­tion effects of air and non-aqueous phase liquid injection in the considered porous medium are volu­metric, i.e., are not due to interaction with grain surfaces or other electrical-chemical effects but are caused by pore obstruction by the electrically non-conductive phase.
Identifier(s):DOI: 10.3997/1873-0604.2009028
Responsible Party
Creator(s):Author: Giorgio Cassiani
Author: Andreas Kemna
Author: Alberto Villa
Author: Egon Zimmermann
Publisher:European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers
TR32 Topic:Soil
Subject(s):CRC/TR32 Keywords: SIP
File Details
File Name:2009_Cassiani_NSG.pdf
Data Type:Text
Size(s):16 Pages
File Size:2160 kB (2.109 MB)
Date(s):Date Accepted: 2009-05-01
Mime Type:application/pdf
Data Format:PDF
Download Permission:OnlyTR32
General Access and Use Conditions:For internal use only
Access Limitations:For internal use only
Licence:TR32DB Data policy agreement
North:-no map data
Measurement Region:Other
Measurement Location:--Other--
Specific Informations - Publication
Article Type:Journal
Source:Near Surface Geophysics
Number Of Pages:16
Page Range:547 - 562
Metadata Details
Metadata Creator:Johann Alexander (Sander) Huisman
Metadata Created:2013-12-02
Metadata Last Updated:2013-12-02
Funding Phase:1
Metadata Language:English
Metadata Version:V40
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