TR32-Database: Database of Transregio 32

[761] - Multiple-scattering in radar systems: a review

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Citation
Battaglia, A., Tanelli, S., Kobayashi, S., Zrnic, D., Hogan, R. J., Simmer, C., 2010. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: a review. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 111, 917 - 947. DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.024.
Identification
Title(s):Main Title: Multiple-scattering in radar systems: a review
Description(s):Abstract: Although extensively studied within the lidar community, the multiple scattering phenomenon has always been considered a rare curiosity by radar meteorologists. Up to few years ago its appearance has only been associated with two- or three-body- scattering features (e.g. hail flares and mirror images) involving highly reflective surfaces. Recent atmospheric research aimed at better understanding of the water cycle and the role played by clouds and precipitation in affecting the Earth’s climate has driven the deployment of high frequency radars in space. Examples are the TRMM 13.5 GHz, the CloudSat 94 GHz, the upcoming EarthCARE 94 GHz, and the GPM dual 13–35 GHz radars. These systems are able to detect the vertical distribution of hydrometeors and thus provide crucial feedbacks for radiation and climate studies. The shift towards higher frequencies increases the sensitivity to hydrometeors, improves the spatial resolution and reduces the size and weight of the radar systems. On the other hand, higher frequency radars are affected by stronger extinction, especially in the presence of large precipitating particles (e.g. raindrops or hail particles), which may eventually drive the signal below the minimum detection threshold. In such circumstances the interpretation of the radar equation via the single scattering approximation may be problematic. Errors will be large when the radiation emitted from the radar after interacting more than once with the medium still contributes substantially to the received power. This is the case if the transport mean-free-path becomes comparable with the instrument footprint (determined by the antenna beam-width and the platform altitude). This situation resembles to what has already been experienced in lidar observations, but with a predominance of wide- versus small-angle scattering events. At millimeter wavelengths, hydrometeors diffuse radiation rather isotropically compared to the visible or near infrared region where scattering is predominantly in the forward direction. A complete understanding of radiation transport modeling and data analysis methods under wide-angle multiple scattering conditions is mandatory for a correct interpretation of echoes observed by space-borne millimeter radars. This paper reviews the status of research in this field. Different numerical techniques currently implemented to account for higher order scattering are reviewed and their weaknesses and strengths highlighted. Examples of simulated radar backscattering profiles are provided with particular emphasis given to situations in which the multiple scattering contributions become comparable or overwhelm the single scattering signal. We show evidences of multiple scattering effects from air-borne and from CloudSat observations, i.e. unique signatures which cannot be explained by single scattering theory. Ideas how to identify and tackle the multiple scattering effects are discussed. Finally perspectives and suggestions for future work are outlined. This work represents a reference-guide for studies focused at modeling the radiation transport and at interpreting data from high frequency space-borne radar systems that probe highly opaque scattering media such as thick ice clouds or precipitating clouds.
Identifier(s):DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.024
Responsible Party
Creator(s):Author: Alessandro Battaglia
Author: Simone Tanelli
Author: Satoru Kobayashi
Author: Dusan Zrnic
Author: Robin J. Hogan
Author: Clemens Simmer
Publisher:Elsevier B.V
Topic
TR32 Topic:Atmosphere
Subject(s):CRC/TR32 Keywords: Radar Equation, Radiative Transfer, Multiple Scattering
File Details
File Name:2010_Battaglia_JoQSRT.pdf
Data Type:Text
Size(s):31 Pages
File Size:2428 kB (2.371 MB)
Date(s):Date Accepted: 2009-11-26
Mime Type:application/pdf
Data Format:PDF
Language:English
Status:Completed
Constraints
Download Permission:OnlyTR32
General Access and Use Conditions:For internal use only
Access Limitations:For internal use only
Licence:TR32DB Data policy agreement
Geographic
North:-no map data
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Measurement Region:None
Measurement Location:--None--
Specific Informations - Publication
Status:Published
Review:PeerReview
Year:2010
Type:Article
Article Type:Journal
Source:Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer
Volume:111
Number Of Pages:31
Page Range:917 - 947
Metadata Details
Metadata Creator:Alessandro Battaglia
Metadata Created:2013-12-03
Metadata Last Updated:2013-12-12
Subproject:D5
Funding Phase:1
Metadata Language:English
Metadata Version:V40
Dataset Metrics
Page Visits:178
Metadata Downloads:0
Dataset Downloads:1
Dataset Activity
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